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Notwithstanding such a success, in the domain of physics not only it seems that law-based accounts of explanation e.

Contra such a conclusion, in this section I argue that we have very good reasons to think that the genuine explanation and understanding of some physical phenomena require a mechanistic strategy. In order to defend such a thesis I analyse a time-honoured problem in quantum theory: the measurement problem.

As I will argue, mechanistic explanation can account for the desiderata of a suitable solution to the measurement problem, while law-based theories of explanation fail in this respect. In this talk, I will compare and contrast several confirmation-theoretic and causal "rationalizing explanations" of why Simpson's Paradox may reasonably seem paradoxical even though it is, in fact, a rather common actual statistical phenomenon.

This discussion will include a new, purely confirmation-theoretic "rationalizing explanation" of the apparent paradoxicality of Simpson's Paradox, which trades on a distinction between conjunctive vs suppositional support a distinction which is closely related to other distinctions that are often blurred in other contexts, e.

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Unification of Theories: a Challenge for Computing Science - Microsoft Research

In this paper I will present a process theory of causation in terms of quasi-inertial processes. Causation takes place when quasi-inertial processes are interfered with. In order to solve some longstanding problems in the causation literature such as the pre-emption problem it is essential to individuate the quasi-inertial processes appropriately.

I will argue that this individuation has to take place relative to explanatory contexts.

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I provide a heuristic conception of the feature of unification in the context of developing scientific theories. I argue that the value of a unifying hypothesis is not necessarily that of its ability to explain phenomena, nor must it be that it is more likely to be true.

Unifying principle

Instead, unifying hypotheses can be valuable because they guide experimental research in different domains in such a way that the results from those experiments contribute to the determination of the actual contents of a theory under pursuit. I support this characterization by appealing to the early development of quantum theory. The Variety of Evidence Thesis is taken to state that varied evidence speaking in favor of a hypothesis confirms it more strongly than less varied evidence, ceteris paribus.

This epistemological thesis enjoys widespread intuitive support. Its evidential character makes it highly amenable to a Bayesian analysis.

Ebook: A Unifying Theory of Evolution Generated by Means of Information Modelling

I here give such an analysis. I thus put forward Bayesian models of inquiry in which I explicate the notion of varied evidence. Subsequently, I show that this explication of the notion of varied evidence entails that a Variety of Evidence Thesis holds in all these models. The Variety of Evidence Thesis emerges strengthened. The talk investigates the notion of reliability as a central dimension of evidence in classical statistics and compares this to the analysis provided in the formal epistemology framework especially Bayesian epistemology ; in particular, two notions of reliability are identified and their distinctive roles in interaction with consistency of replications is investigated in the two settings.

Biased research occurs frequently in the sciences.

It is a major challenge for present-day philosophy of science to improve our understanding of biases in science. I will address on the following question: what precisely is epistemically defective that is, unjustified or irrational about biased research? In light of a specific example of a preference bias, I defend the claim that biased research is epistemically defective because biased research fails to provide evidence for the hypothesis to be tested, contrary to the assertions of the scientists carrying out biased research projects.

Including such references in cited text often a creates confusion because such references are not included in the reference list even if they appear in the text; and furthermore b they tend to add an unnecessary cognitive burden on the reader. The authorJBMcNis the initiatorsole contributor to the present study.

Theory, models and biology

JBMcN and her husband, Dr. The author has a master degree in biochemistry, a master degree in computer science systems development, informatics and a European Doctorate and PhD in health informatics. This combination of professional experience has enabled the present study. The present study was performed outside of any job or grant affiliation, while the author had an emeritus position at the Aalborg University.

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The author has since the year been a member of the scientific team describing the Mereon Matrix for this, see [2] , went on early retirement in to work full time on the Mereon Matrix, and is independently continuing such scientific investigations on the matrix. The author is deeply grateful for her position as Emeritus Assoc. Professor at her former university affiliation at Aalborg University, Dept. Without this, the present study would have been critically hampered.

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The author is deeply grateful for continuous brainstorming and constructive feedback on and in the process with her husband, Dr. The author declares that there was and is no conflicting interests, financial or otherwise, that would or could have influenced the outcome of the study. Guest Access.

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